Professor Kazuo Tanaka at the University of Electro-Communications developed a wheelchair that moves around directed only by the brainwaves of its user.
Twelve electrodes are attached to the operators head to measure brainwave activity. The signals are analyzed by an onboard laptop computer, and determine the wheelchair's movement.
According to Professor Tanaka, the recognition and repeatability levels are currently around 80%, which is quite encouraging. Researchers hope to expand this success into more advanced applications like controlling robotic limbs.
Another future application being investigated is a 'brain wave cellphone' that would capture and transmit your emotional state to the other party.